8 • The combined footing may be rectangular, trapezoidal or Tee-shaped in plan. Check the adequacy of the footing based on bearing pressure. Figure (87) shows a layout of columns for a multi-storey building. 4 and determine all dimensions and reinforcement. Trophy's first production contract was signed in 2007. Design of Combined Footings Summary of combined footing design is shown in the following steps. • Prevent excessive two or more columns. Where settlements control, the reported value is the net 2America n Concret e /nstitut Building Cod 318- . Reinforcement must, therefore, be provided in the longitudinal direction and placed near the tension sides. Flexure: W Wheel Wfill Wsur k ft klf ft u u klf ft ft ft w L M W plf pcf W pcf ft Worked Example Design a square pad footing for a 350 × 350 mm column carrying Gk = 600 kNand Qk = 505 kN. Shukla Combined Footing Analysis and Design Spreadsheet. 3 Load application The composite trapezoidal rule usually requires a large number of function eval-uations to achieve an accurate answer. Eccentric footing – A spread or wall footing that also must resist a moment in addition to the axial column load. The eccentricity e of the vertical load is defined as V M e y. This post covers the steps in the design of combined footings when subjected to a combination of vertical loads, horizontal loads, and bending moments. 2 illustrates the analysis and design of deep foundations for a building similar to the one highlighted in Chapter 7 of this volume of design examples. Solution 1: Plain concrete footing is given in secs. 024 + 0. jpg You can be attracted to engineering owing to the creative element. The volume of any right prism is the area of the base, in this case a trapezoid, multiplied by the height of the prism. Design of Isolated Column Footing The objective of design is to determine • Area of footing • Thickness of footing Design of rectangular footings Designing procedure: Service load design: Determine required footing size from required footing area and limitation of footing width. 4. we are going to see how to calculate the volume for trapezoidal footing volume along with an example. The geometric proportions and shape are so fixed that the centeroid of the footing area coincides with the resultant of the column loads. If the footing supports more than two columns, it is known as a continuous footing. 9 (1 )(11. The strap serves the same purpose as the interior portion of a combined rectangular and trapezoidal footing but much narrower to save materials. An empirical method for the evaluation of moments and contact pressures due to subgrade reactions is presented for combined footings conforming to certain stipulated limitations regarding continuity, rigidity, and variations in loading or column spacing. DESIGN OF COMBINED FOOTINGS BY RIGID METHOD: The rigid method of design of combined footings assumes that: 1. Product color plays a vital role in shaping brand style and affecting users’ purchase decision. G. Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA P-751, Design Examples Foundation Design - 3 . and Design, 7th Edition, 2016, James Wight, Pearson, Example 15-5. 1- Select a trial footing depth. Trapezoidal footing is provided when one column load is much more than the other. Jun 27, 2019 ASDIP FOUNDATION structural engineering software is perfect for engineers designing spread, utilized by engineers for design of concrete foundations, such as spread footings, strap footings . 75 ) 6 1 29. 5 = 2. 27m 1 (a) Detailing of the Trapezoidal Footing (b) Plan showing Longitudinal Reiforcement Figure 17. Center to center distance between the columns is 3. 46, Ratio, b/a. The purpose is to maintain consistent pressure distribution under the whole area of the footings. 11. Thi s cod i revised every four to eight years Th metric versio is designated 318M-. Combined trapezoidal footing:- Combined trapezoidal footing for two columns as used when column carries the largest load is near the property line where the projection is limited or when there is restriction on the total length of the footing. A combined footing may have either rectangular or trapezoidal shape or be a series of pads connected by narrow rigid beams called a strap footing. Compare the total volume of concrete in the strap footing in Example 16. 60 [m] thickness shown in Figure (80). The combined footing is mainly two types: Rectangular Combined Footing Trapezoidal Combined Footing. In the first one, the footings are designed as isolated footings without connection among them, while in the second, the the soil, footings must be design to. 0 allowablebearingcapacity, OK (1 )(11. Combined Footing Verification Example (pdf). • Design Assumptions –strap is infinitely rigid DESIGN OF STRAP (CANTILEVER) FOOTINGSDesign Steps and EquationsFor an example on Design of Strap Footing click here (a)(b)(a) Strap Footing with non-uniform strap bean thickness (b) Strap Footing with uniform strap bean thickness1 of 6 Advanced Foundation Engineering Design Equations for Strap Footings Dr. Shear walls are permitted to be calculated by principles of mechanics without limitations by using values for nail strength given in the NDS and wood structural panel design properties given in the APA/PDS. Example 3. , 2016. load on heel is due to the weight of heel + fill + surcharge as the wall tries to tip over. 5 ksi, fy = 50 ksi, qall = 5 ksf with a SF = 3, Df = 5 feet, the edge of column #1 is at the property line, and the spacing between columns is 18 feet center-to-center (c. jpg general manager resume sample pdf. are permitted to be increased 40 percent for wind design. Combined Footing Design with Example - The Constructor - Civil. 4: 1 January 2019 TABLE OF CONTENTS ~ SPREAD FOOTINGS 6. 12, StucturePoint LLC. Volume of Rectangular Cuboid = length x […] Wall footing – A continuous wall bears on a wide pad to distribute the load. The footing or mat is infinitely rigid, and therefore, the deflection of the footing or mat does not influence the pressure distribution, 2. Wall footing – A continuous wall bears on a wide pad to distribute the load. the footings (and slab) will need further support which may be provided by: • Design. 69 2 ksf ksf ft ft k ft ft k v 7. 28. that converts Excel to HTML and MHT format. All the dimensions are already given on the sketch. 273) = 4. Strap type Types of combined footing 1. This paper presents the design of boundary combined footings of rectangular shape using a new model to consider real soil pressure acting on the contact surface of the footing; such pressure is presented in terms of an axial load, moment around the "X" axis and moment around the "Y" axis to each column. This results in uniform pressure below the entire area of footing. Design a rectangular combined footing, given that f’c = 3. Combined Footing Design with Example and Types of Combined Footing Home / Geotechnical Engineering / Foundation Engineering / Combined Footing Design with Example and Types of Combined Footing Combined footings are constructed for two or more columns when they are close to each other and their foundations overlap. Design at the Ultimate and Serviceability Limit States Element design: cross-section resistance and member stability Secondary structure: gable columns, bracing and eaves members. Mat foundations: are large continuous footings that support all columns and walls of a structure. Trapezoidal footing is provided when one column Section 5 shows three numerical examples for design of square isolated footings supporting one square column and the dimensions are obtained using optimization techniques, and the three examples are: concentric footing, edge footing and corner footing. restaurant-general-manager-resume-sample. When two columns are reasonably close, a combined footing is designed for both columns as shown in Figure 3. c & 48” o. Determination of Base Stresses in Rectangular Footings under Biaxial Bending 1520 The dimensions of the footing are Bx By. A combined footing is a rectangular or trapezoidal shaped footing. x 24 in. PDF | This paper shows a comparative study for design of reinforced concrete boundary combined footings of trapezoidal and rectangular forms supporting two columns and each column transmits an Trapezoidal footing length = 2m , B=1. Combined footings are provided when distance between two columns is small and soil bearing capacity of soil is lower and their footings overlap with each other. The document includes a worked example, demonstrating the assessment of sensitivity to second order effects, and the verification of the primary members. The base stresses for this kind of footings are readily computed by using the well known formulae of strength of materials. 15m. 1 m For uniform pressure distribution the C. 3. Combined Footing. Basma Dear Sir, I have searched the web for a combined footing designed with axial force and MOMENTS and found nothing except this excel program. Combined footings Combined footings are provided . 57/5. 18 June 2018. Heel Design. 7 Design of Combined Footings by Rigid Method (Conventional Method) The rigid method of design of combined footings assumes that 1. 1] where the method is applicable. square column. • The maximum allowable driving stresses. I know you copyrighted this program sir but may i ask for your reference for this one. 525m2 => 2. The trapezoidal footing formula is used to determine the volume of a trapezoidal footing from the respective drawing specifications. In this paper, we cast the engineering design problem in the framework of computer Simplified Design of Combined Footings. 2. Equally important are the suitability of the materials, quality control and supervision of the workmanship. Trapezoidal footing is provided when one column 3. soil . txt) or read online for free. ii. The footing is support to two columns C1 and C2 spaced at 4. 4 Abbreviations and notation 6. design condition the design pressure may be reduced to the trapezoidal distribution resulting from analysis, with approval of the supervising Section Leader. Exercise : In the following sketch , we observe a trapezoidal footing. 2 Principles of cantilever or strap footing design 3. Load Path and Transfer of Seismic Forces . dead load for overturning calculations, F the depth Df should be to the pressed edge of the combined footing or mat at the time the . enrollment status. Free Rcc Footing Design Excel Sheet Downloads: Excel Sheet. So to calculate the volume of trapezoidal footing we need to calculate the volume of a cuboid and a truncated pyramid. Unmoving soil EQ Motion . This is an example of a stiffened slab continuous footing. 1 Determining Individual Loads on a Structure Building Dimensions and Weights (pulled from the text of the example problem) In the primary design of footings or rafts, it is generally assumed that the contact pressure distribution is planar, whatever the type of model used in the analysis of the footing. Combined Footing Analysis and Design Spreadsheet-Download Free. To make it possible, the centre of gravity of the footing area should overlap with the centre of gravity of the total loads of the two or more Types of Footings ENCE 454 ©Assakkaf 3. I,, lor ell'cci~vc w~dlh calculation of rsolattld 'I'-beam = 5 - (0. c:)bjective To serve its purpose, a structure must be safe against collapse and be serviceable in use. • Additional material stress limits, beyond the design and driving stress limits, may apply to prevent buckling of piles when a portion of the pile is in air, water, or soil not capable of adequate lateral support. IOWA DOT ~ OFFICE OF BRIDGES AND STRUCTURES ~ LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL ~ 6. Also embedded an easy to use trapezoidal volume calculator. . Assume safe bearing capacity of soil as 300 kN/m2 at a depth of 1 m below the ground level. ACI 336. Max. A1 = area of column in spread footing design A2 = projected bearing area of column load in spread footing design b = width of retaining wall stem at base = rectangular column dimension in concrete footing design = width, often cross-sectional bf = width of the flange of a steel or cross section bo = perimeter length for two-way shear Reinforced concrete design of combined footing. "Heavily Loaded Strap Footings: Design, Detailing and Behavior". 4 base x 0. 2 Loads 6. Fig 3. 4 Spread footings 6. 46, 0. Mat foundations: are large continuous = 1000 kN Required: To design combined footing with central beam joining the two columns. 1. 6 P2 l a2a1 x R Combined footing with loads P1 L/2L/2 Types of combined footings Property line + + + b 7. ASDIP FOUNDATION includes the design of concrete combined footings. The interior column has a section of 20” x 20” & carries dead & live load of 220 kips & 120 kips respectively. Footing. First you find the area of trapezoid h(a+b)/2 h is the height of the trapezoid, not the height of the prism a is the length of the top b is the length of the bottom Then you find the volume of the The combined footing comes in different shapes like rectangular, trapezoidal or Tee-shaped in a plan. 2-Trapezoidal or irregularly shaped footings . Singleanddouble Dear Sir, I have searched the web for a combined footing designed with axial force and MOMENTS and found nothing except this excel program. 1 Combined Footings Combined Footings receive loading from more than one column or load-supporting element. Can anybody help and calculate quantity of concrete by explaining all formulas involved. sample disturbance and the quality and type of triaxial. The trapezoidal footing formula is explained and clarified with the help of an example in this article. As the footing and columns loads are symmetrical, this condition is satisfied. = 11. Here, the trapezoidal The trapezoidal footing formula is used to determine the volume of a trapezoidal footing from the respective drawing specifications. 5 x 2. Thus, footings and tie beams can be analyzed correctly. Combined footings and strap footings are normal used when one of columns is subjected to large eccentric loadings. If two isolated footings are joined be a strap beam, the footing is sometimes called a cantilever footing (Figure 2e). Design of Combined Footing Excel Sheet A footing when used for two columns or more than two columns is called combined footing. Ordinarily the designer should determine the concrete shear resistance by the sectional design model Method 1 [AASHTO-LRFD 5. 6. This is contrasted in the next example with Simpson’s rule, which will require signiﬁcantly fewer evaluations. 5, Length, x (m), 0. 2R-88 (Reapproved 2002) Suggested Analysis and Design Procedures for Combined Footings and Mats Reported by ACI Committee 336 Edward J. The footing A strap footing is a component of a building's foundation. & C may be used to design new foundation systems or to verify the design of proposed or existing systems. The edge column on the left has a section of 16” x 16” and carries 17. Adnan A. 5m and d- 0. In such cases, it is necessary to provide combined this footing with that of the adjacent internal column. The function of a footing foundation is to transmit the load form the structure to the underlying soil. 2. 2306. pressure The ESA method is mostly found in structural design. ASDIP FOUNDATION is a structural engineering software utilized by engineers for design of concrete foundations, such as spread footings, strap footings, and combined footings, per the latest ACI 318 provisions. All anchor bolt shall have plate wahers a minimum of 2”x2”x3/16” thick. P =100k 5ft 5ft Frost line Soil unit weight = 110 pcf 4’-0” 2’-0” rectangular or trapezoidal combined footings- even if oversize- will not work. IN SPREAD FOOTING DESIGN The allowable soil pressure for footing design is obtained as the worst case of bearing capac-ity and settlement as in Example 5-9. a: Combined footing without spine beam Figure 11. The combined footing may be rectangular, trapezoidal or Tee-shaped in a plan. 3, Dimensions: 4, Col. 2 Design information 6. When two columns are close together and separate isolated footings would overlap, in s EXAMPLE 1: A reinforced concrete footing (Fig 1) supports a 12”x12” column reaction P=100 kips at the top of footing. The reasons for providing combined footings are as below. When a projectile is detected, the design of the system is constrained by the initial material selection. 4. 1 Policy overview 6. deflected . general manager resume sample pdf. Design a plain concrete footing for a column of 400 mm x 400 mm carrying an axial load of 400 kN under service loads. Foundation Design - Structure Notation: a = equivalent square column size in spread footing design = depth of the effective compression block in a concrete beam A = name for area A g = gross area, equal to the total area ignoring any reinforcement A req = area required to satisfy allowable stress A s = area of steel reinforcement in concrete Example 6: Design of trapezoidal footing Description of the problem In the primary design of footings or rafts, it is generally assumed that the contact pressure distribution is planar, whatever the type of model used in the analysis of the footing. PDF | This paper presents the design of reinforced concrete combined footings of trapezoidal form subjected to axial load and moments in two directions to each column using a new model to consider Here the length of footing is restricted that means the footing design as a trapezoidal combine footing. Cast-in-place, reinforced concrete slabs having standard ratios and span lengths can generally be taken as rigid diaphragms. First deliveries started immediately afterward. Complete the design of the strap footing in Example 16. c. pdf), Text File (. D-4 Building on strong and safe foundations D foundation analysis and design examples D. A concrete seal within the confines of a cofferdam permits construction of a pier footing and column in the dry. Slab type 8. Footings Example 1—Design of a square spread footing of a seven-story building Design and detail a typical square spread footing of a six bay by five bay seven-story building, founded on stiff soil, supporting a 24 in. Reinforced concreter design: Determine footing depth for punching shear and direct shear in the longitudinal direction. 1, Col. Section view Property line Plan view Figure 3 Example #1. Answer: Category 2. It carries two or more columns along a straight line. Strap Footing Design Spreadsheet. We need to calculate the volume of the concrete. So using prescriptive methods: Base area: (600 + 505)/200 = 5. Based on the soil test, allowable bearing capacity of soil is 5 ksf. of the footing should coincide with the C. The combined footing may be rectangular, trapezoidal or Tee-shaped in plan. Example 5. 2Lumbersheathedshearwalls. Introduction. 4 with that of the rectangular combined footing in Example 16. 5m. 7. It signifies that the lateral forces are transmitted to the components of the LFRS corresponding to their proportional rigidities. Sc. Appendix B, Foundation Design Load Tables, provides design require-ments for anchorage of the manufactured Combined footing is basically a combination of various footings, which utilizes the properties of different footing in a single footing based on the requirement of the structure. This example shows the analysis and design of a group of footings resting on an elastic foundation by two different structural systems. xlsx. 1, Combined Footing Analysis and Design. Design of Combined Footings 4m I O 8 - 8 legged str. of column loads. These can be rectangular or trapezoidal plan. operations-manager-resume-sample-pdf-of-operations-manager-resume-sample-pdf-6. The footing or mat is infinitely rigid, hence, the deflection of the footing or mat does not influence the pressure distribution, Combined Footing Problem Statement Design a rectangular combined footing to support two columns shown above. However, users’ preferences about product color design schemes may va Combined Footings Data Input and Load Pane Foundation Design Isolated Spread Footings Main Navigator Pane Output Pane Quick Access Toolbar Ribbon Toolbar Spread Footings Strap Footings Tabbed View Window 4. I made pdf file of above video notes if u want then go to my website to download it Design of combined rectangular column footing PART-1 How To Calculate Quantity Of Trapezoidal Footing Trapezoidal Rule Example 5 FOOTINGS EXAMPLE 1 - Design of a continuous (wall) footing Determine the size and reinforcement for the continuous footing under a 12 in. a combined footing becomes excessively long and narrow. soil pressure . 1 completes the analysis and design of shallow foundations for two of the alternative framing arrangements considered for the building featured in Example 6. The columns are designed to carry five floors. Inertial force . Combined Footing Analysis and Design Spreadsheet. 3 Definitions 6. Version: Sep-18-2017 Reinforced Concrete Column Combined Footing Analysis and Design A combined footing was selected to support a 24 in. a) Closeness of column (for example around elevator shafts and escalators); and The rigid method of design of combined footings assumes that: 1. Slab and beam type 3. If you are depress with lost or forgotten MS XLS password and think how to. 90MN, if the spacing between the two columns is 4m. All interior bearing and non- bearing footing’s shall have 7/32” shot pins @ 32” o. Top free rcc footing design excel sheet downloads. Combined Footings When a footing supports a line of two or more columns, it is called a combined footing. This paper presents the design of boundary combined footings of rectangular shape using a new model to consider real soil pressure acting on the contact surface of the footing; such pressure is presented in terms of an axial load, moment around the “X” axis and moment around the “Y” axis to each column. When the column are very near to each other so that their footings overlap. 6 Foundation Seals. The projection of the footing on either side of the column with respect to center is 1m. 2- Establish the required base area of the footing: Uniform soil pressure is achieved by making the resultant of the service column loads coincide with the centroid of the footing base. Safety certification was granted in 2010. 7 2. pressure . 80 5. The design includes the Elta EL/M-2133 F/G band fire-control radar with four flat-panel antennas mounted on the vehicle, with a 360-degree field of view. In the first one, the group of footings has no connections while in the second one, the group of footings is connected together by stiff tie beams considering the interaction effect among footings, tie beams Design a trapezoidal combined footing for two columns (30cm ×30cm) carrying column loads of 1. Design Design of combined footings with example is discussed. Example 7: Design of a group of footings with and without tie beams. This photo shows an example of combined footings used in a heavy The required design area A of a footing can be found from, Q1 + Q2 A= (1) qall net of a rectangular or trapezoidal combined footing if the distance between columns is Sep 18, 2017 Figure 1 – Reinforced Concrete Combined Footing Geometry . Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version The combined footing may be rectangular, trapezoidal or good book, but i am adding a pdf file link[1] which are having examples on footings, The design must be carried out twice. Ulrich Shyam N. 75 ) 17. CE 537, Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 6 / 8 2. 1. Combined footings: support two or more columns and may be either rectangular or trapezoidal in shape (Figures 2c and 2d). 46, Distance, Xa (m). from one edge of the footing to the other edge is assumed. 5 References 6. 80 [m] apart. PDF | This paper presents the design of reinforced concrete combined 3 Boundary trapezoidal combined footing subjected to the real loads suggestions for future research, when is presented another type of soil, by example in totally. A combined footing is provide under the following circumstances: i. We have explained the process (with diagram) step by step using this simple trapezoidal footing formula. deflected shape soil . Combined footing – Multiple columns (typically two) bear on a rectangular or trapezoidal shaped footing. BS 8110 and limit state design. b: Combined footing with spine beam Combined footings behave as inverted beams spanning between the columns and subjected to the upward soil pressure. • The maximum allowable design stress during the service life. M. 5m (say) deep. 6, Width, y (m), 0. Results and discussion are presented in Section 6. bearing wall of a 10 story building Figure 11. By coupling material discovery and engineering system design, we can combine these two traditionally separate processes under the umbrella of a uni ed multiple objective optimization problem. Combined Footing A combined footing is the one which supports two columns. Appendix A, Foundation Design Concepts, shows design concepts suit-able for a variety of manufactured home types and site conditions. Abstract. The below formula has used for calculating the volume of the trapezoidal footing. Design of Trapezoidal Footing - Bowles - Free download as PDF File (. The edge column on the left has a section of 16” x 16” and carries dead & live load of 175 kips & 110 kips respectively. E. It is a type of combined footing, Guzman, Truly, P. c respectively. 5(b). Calculating the concrete volume of an isolated footing seems like hectic. Secondly, Design the footing as a strap footing if the spacing between the columns is adjusted to be 5m. 3: Reinforced concrete design of a combined footing. The ability to specify a minimum and maximum size to use in the design of top reinforcing bars is added to the Concrete and Reinforcement form. 7m D=0. Force on a pile EQ on unloaded pile Pile supporting structure . • Essentially a strap footing consists of a rigid beam connecting two pads (footings) to transmit unbalanced shear and moment from the statically unbalanced footing to the second footing. The choice of suitable type of footing depends on the depth at which the bearing strata lies, the soil condition and the type of superstructure. The bottom of the footing is 13 ft below finished grade. shape . The formula for the area of a trapezoid is A = 1/2h(a + b) where a and b are The following enhancements have been made to general mode combined footings. Conclusions (Section 7) complete the paper. Where allowable shear values exceed 350 plf, foundation sill plates and all framing members receiving 5. As a result, the Oct 7, 2013 Design a rectangular combined footing to support two columns shown above. Use M 20 and Fe 415 for the design. 703 m . 3 Design of Trapezoidal Combined Footing with or without Beam ii) a trapezoidal slab type with or without a beam connecting the columns, and . In which, the footings are represented by plate elements while the tie beams are represented by beam elements. The presumed allowable bearing pressure of the non-aggressive soil is 200 kN/m2. 03. exterior column near a property line and a 24 in. 7. Stumps and Piers Where footings are used on fill, unstable soils (subject to slip), low bearing capacity soils, etc. For example, white students were nearly twice as likely to graduate as black students (29% versus 16%) and part-time students were half as likely to graduate within eight years as full-time students (17% versus 33) (Ginder, Kelly-Reid, & Mann, 2017; Snyder, de Continuous Footings – In sections and details, continuous footings can look like this. Dimensions of one side of footing are restricted to some lower value so that column footings may be combined. x 16 in. Combined footings can be either rectangular or trapezoidal. 9: Detailing ol' the Designed Footing SAQ 2 Design and detail a trapezoidal combined footing witlz bea~nfor the data given in Example 17. spMats Engineering Software Program Manual v8. Take allowable soil pressure as 200KN/m2 and the length of footing as 5m. Trapezoidal footing = Cuboid + trancated pyramid. Combined footings Combined footings are provided to support two or more column loads. dimension of the contact surface for boundary trapezoidal combined footings, when the load that must support In the design of superficial foundations in terms of the application of loads are: 1) the footings Also, examples are presented to 4. Combined Footings Data Input and Load Pane Foundation Design Isolated Spread Footings Main Navigator Pane Output Pane Quick Access Toolbar Ribbon Toolbar Spread Footings Strap Footings Tabbed View Window 4. (1) Design of combined footing – Slab and Beam type-2 Design a rectangular combined footing with a central beam for supporting two columns 400x400 mm in size to carry a load of 1000kN each. This structural engineering software is based on the latest ACI 318 provisions. 2(A)1 and 11. The extra labor and forming costs for this type of footing make it one use as a last resort. This type of underwater construction is practical to a water depth of approximately 50 feet. Once the pressure distribution is known, the bending moment and shear force can be determined and the footing can be designed to safely resist these forces. 1 General 6. 2MN and 0. Chapter 7 Substructure Design Page 7-6 WSDOT Bridge Design Manual M 23-50. Calculations alone do not produce safe, serviceable and durable structures. 1m Provide footing of size 5. How To Calculate Concrete Volume For Trapezoidal Footing: A trapezoid is a combination of a cuboid and a truncated pyramid. ). The building has a 10 ft high basement. The soil pressure is distributed in a straight line or a plane As a design example for trapezoidal footing, consider the trapezoidal combined footing of 0. 4 x 2. trapezoidal combined footing design example pdf

s0, i4, uq, dl, uz, 3p, av, zs, o1, sr, x6, gi, ka, py, hv, a6, ca, t7, jj, hv, ny, mn, mv, n1, o2, mz, yh, vy, 5l, ty, de,